Guidelines for the Research Paper
GATHER INFORMATION!Once your topic has been approved, begin to gather information from authoritative reference sources. You MUST use the following:
TAKE NOTES! As you examine each source, make a separate notecard of each fact or quotation you might want to use in your paper. You must use index cards when preparing notes; they will be collected as part of your grade. You may Xerox materials and cut and paste information, but it must be organized on cards following the format discussed in class. Be sure to identify the source of the information on the listing (include the author's name and page number on which the information appears). Try to summarize the information in your own words (paraphrasing); use quotation marks if you copy the information exactly. (This rule should apply whether you are copying a great deal of material or only a phrase.) Give each listing a simple descriptive heading.
^* (SYMBOL) or SOURCE CITATION TOPIC
PARAPHRASE and/or QUOTATIONS…….Include your observations, facts, and quotes from work. Make a new card for each source. Make cars with similar headings so that you will be able to organize this mess later.
(p. #) if available
PLAGIARISM!Using someone else's ideas or phrasing and representing those ideas or phrasing as our own, either on purpose or through carelessness, is a serious offense known as plagiarism. "Ideas or phrasing" includes written or spoken material, of course — from whole papers and paragraphs to sentences, and, indeed, phrases — but it also includes statistics, lab results, art work, etc. "Someone else" can mean a professional source, such as a published writer or critic in a book, magazine, encyclopedia, or journal; an electronic resource such as material we discover on the World Wide Web; another student at our school or anywhere else; a paper-writing "service" (online or otherwise) which offers to sell written papers for a fee.
Let us suppose, for example, that we're doing a paper for Music Appreciation on the child prodigy years of the composer and pianist Franz Liszt and that we've read about the development of the young artist in several sources. In Alan Walker's book Franz Liszt: The Virtuoso Years (Ithaca: 1983), we read that Liszt's father encouraged him, at age six, to play the piano from memory, to sight-read music and, above all, to improvise. We can report in our paper (and in our own words) that Liszt was probably the most gifted of the child prodigies making their mark in Europe in the mid-nineteenth century — because that is the kind of information we could have gotten from a number of sources; it has become what we call common knowledge.
However, if we report on the boy's father's role in the prodigy's development, we should give proper credit to Alan Walker. We could write, for instance, the following: Franz Liszt's father encouraged him, as early as age six, to practice skills which later served him as an internationally recognized prodigy (Walker 59). Or, we could write something like this: Alan Walker notes that, under the tutelage of his father, Franz Liszt began work in earnest on his piano playing at the age of six (59). Not to give Walker credit for this important information is plagiarism.
QUOTATIONS and PARANTHETHICAL CITATIONS
You must quote your sources AS WELL AS CITE PARAANTHETICALLY.
Quotations that constitute fewer than five lines in your paper should be set off with quotation marks [ " " ] and be incorporated within the normal flow of your text. For material exceeding that length, omit the quotation marks and indent the quoted language one inch from your left-hand margin. If an indented quotation is taken entirely from one paragraph, the first line should be even with all the other lines in that quotation; however, if an indented quotation comes from two or more paragraphs, indent the first line of each paragraph an additional one-quarter inch.
If quotation marks appear within the text of a quotation that already has the usual double-quote marks [ " " ] around it (a quote-within-a-quote), set off that inner quotation with single-quote marks [ ‘ ’ ] . Such a quote-within-a-quote within an indented quotation is marked with double-quote marks.
In the United States, the usual practice is to place periods and commas inside quotation marks, regardless of logic. Other punctuation marks — question marks, exclamation marks, semicolons, and colons — go where logic would dictate. Thus, we might see the following sentences in a paper about Robert Frost:
The first two lines of this stanza, "My little horse must think it queer / To stop without a farmhouse near," remind us of a nursery rhyme.
(Note, also, the slash mark / (with a space on either side) to denote the poem's line-break.) But observe the placement of this semicolon:
There is a hint of the nursery rhyme in the line "My little horse must think it queer"; however, the poem then quickly turns darkly serious.
Pay close attention to the placement of commas and periods in the use of citations.
Documentation will take two forms in your final paper:
For the Works Cited Page
This is the last page of your research paper.
Book by a Single Author/Editor
Kasson, John F. Civilizing the Machine: Technology and Republican Values in America 1776-1900. New York: Penguin, 1976.
Book by Multiple Authors/Editors
Ehrenreich, Barbara, and John Ehrenreich, eds. The American Health Empire: Power, Profits, and Politics. New York: Vintage, 1971.
Grossberg, Lawrence, Cary Nelson, and Paula A. Treichler, eds. Cultural Studies. New York: Routeledge, 1992.
Hall, Stuart, et al. Policing the Crisis. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1979
Encyclopedia Articles (article unsigned and signed)
"Mealworm." Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1987 ed.
Garvey, Lawrence. "El Paso, Illinois." Encyclopedia Americana. 1982 ed.
Materials Accessed Through a Computer Service
Include the following information: Author name (if given); publication information; title of the database (underlined); publication medium (Online); name of the computer service (EbscoHost, Silverplatter, etc.); date of access.
Guidelines for Family Television Viewing. Urbana: ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, 1990. ERIC. Online. EbscoHost. 22 Nov. 1998.
No Author Identified
If no author can be identified, then a text is alphabetized by the first word of its title, excluding definite or indefinite articles (note that "The Shepherd's Consort" precedes Tesh, Sylvia Noble).
"The Shepherd's Consort." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Ed.
Article in a Weekly Periodical
Note that volume numbers are not listed for magazines. Periodical titles should be underlined.
Whitaker, Mark. "Getting Tough at Last." Newsweek 10 May 1993: 22.
Nelson, Cary. Personal interview. 15 Sept. 1987.
Villalobos, Joaquin. Interview. Mother Jones July 1992: 8-10.
Films and Videotapes
Begin with the title, which should be underlined, followed by the director's name. Then, include any additional information that you find relevant, such as the names of lead actors. End with the distributor and year, separated by a comma.
Winnie the Pooh and the Honey Tree. Dir. Al Smith. With Winnie the Pooh and Piglet. Walt Disney Home Video, 1985.
Computer Software, Computer or Internet Resources-- WEBSITES
Almost all of the following is taken directly from the MLA Website's "MLA Style - FAQ" found through (http://www.mla.org/). Entries in a works-cited list for computer or Internet resources contain as many items from the list below as are relevant and available.
1. Name of the author, editor, compiler, or translator of the source (if available and relevant), reversed for alphabetizing and followed by an abbreviation, such as ed., if appropriate
2. Title of a poem, short story, article, or similar short work within a scholarly project, database, or periodical (in quotation marks); or title of a posting to a discussion list or forum (taken from the subject line and put in quotation marks), followed by the description Online posting
3. Title of a book (underlined)
4. Name of the editor, compiler, or translator of the text (if relevant and if not cited earlier), preceded by the appropriate abbreviation, such as Ed.
5. Publication information for any print version of the source
6. Title of the scholarly project, database, periodical, or professional or personal site (underlined); or, for a professional or personal site with no title, a description such as Home page
7. Name of the editor of the scholarly project or database (if available)
8. Version number of the source (if not part of the title) or, for a journal, the volume number, issue number, or other identifying number
9. Date of electronic publication, of the latest update, or of posting
10. For a work from a subscription service, the name of the service and--if a library is the subscriber--the name and city (and state abbreviation, if necessary) of the library
11. For a posting to a discussion list or forum, the name of the list or forum
12. The number range or total number of pages, paragraphs, or other sections, if they are numbered
13. Name of any institution or organization sponsoring or associated with the Web site
14. Date when the researcher accessed the source
15. Electronic address, or URL, of the source (in angle brackets); or, for a subscription service, the URL of the service's main page (if known) or the keyword assigned by the service
Victorian Women Writers Project. Ed. Perry Willett. Apr. 1997. Indiana U. 26 Apr. 1997 <http://www.indiana.edu/~letrs/vwwp/>.
Portuguese Language Page. U of Chicago. 1 May 1997<http://humanities.uchicago.edu/romance/port/>.
Lancashire, Ian. Home page. 1 May 1997 <http://www.chass.utoronto.ca:8080/~ian/index.html>.
Nesbit, E[dith]. Ballads and Lyrics of Socialism. London, 1908. Victorian Women WritersProject. Ed. Perry Willett. Apr. 1997. Indiana U. 26 Apr. 1997 <http://www.indiana.edu/~letrs/vwwp/ nesbit/ballsoc.html>.
Article in a Reference Database
"Fresco." Britannica Online. Vers. 97.1.1. Mar. 1997. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 29 Mar. 1997<http:// www.eb.com:180>.
Article in a Journal
Flannagan, Roy. "Reflections on Milton and Ariosto." Early Modern Literary Studies 2.3 (1996):16 pars. 22 Feb. 1997 <http://unixg.ubc.ca:7001/0/e-sources/emls/02-3/flanmilt.html>.
Article in a Magazine
Landsburg, Steven E. "Who Shall Inherit the Earth?" Slate 1 May 1997. 2 May 1997 <http:// www.slate.com/Economics/97-05-01/Economics.asp>.
Article from a Subscription Service
(i.e. EbscoHost, Lexis-Nexis, etc.) Note: If a library is the subscriber, include the library name, city and state.
Wildstrom, Stephen H. "A Big Boost for Net Privacy." Business Week Apr. 5, 1999: 23. LEXIS-NEXIS Academic Universe. USM Cook Lib., Hattiesburg, MS. 5 August 1999. <http://web.lexis-nexis.com/cis>.