Guidelines for the Research
You must quote your sources AS WELL AS CITE
PARANTHETICALLY. USE CITATIONS
!!! Documentation will take two forms in your final paper:
In the Works Cited or Bibliography section, where all the sources
you've used should be listed alphabetically, and
Within the text of your paper, where parentheses should show your
readers where you found each piece of information that you have used. These
textual citations allow the reader to refer to your Works Cited page(s) for
IN THE BODY of your paper: Parenthetical Documentation
- MLA recommends
parenthetical documentation instead of footnoting. Parenthetical
documentation is a brief reference in the paper directly after the
sentence or paragraph in which you quote from the book or use its ideas. (Author 27) referring to page 27
of a book listed in the Works Cited takes the place of a footnote. (Author
27) guides the reader of the paper to the full entry for that author in
the Works Cited. If the Works Cited lists a work by title, use a shortened
form of the title and page number. Examples follow.
- When the author
is mentioned in the sentence only put the page number in the parentheses.
Place the period after the parentheses, not within the quotation marks.
For example: Carter Hardy believes
that the "increased intake of sugar cereals among teachers has
significantly raised classroom narcolepsy" (106).
- When the author
is not mentioned by name, put both the author's last name and the page
number in the parentheses. Do not put a comma in between them. For
example: "Increased intake of
sugar cereals among teachers has significantly raised classroom
narcolepsy" (Hardy 106).
- When there is
no author, use the first word (or first few words) of the title of the
book or article (article title words in quotations). Many people lament the loss of quality television time to the
imposition of family interaction ("America" 33).
- When there are
multiple authors: Two authors:
"If you think about it, the human species produces more tin foil than
plastic wrap" (Clinton and Bush 90). Three authors: (Clinton, Bush, and Reagan 99). More than three authors: (Clinton
et al. 104.)
information in two or more works: List both works in
the parenthetical citation exactly
as they would be listed individually, but separate them with a semicolon. Example:
Pundits agree that globalization will impact the future of all businesses
as national borders are breached and trade barriers are broken down, and
both eventually disappear (Friedman 42; Czinkota, Ronkainen and Tarrant
- When using a
quote that was already a quote in your sources: Lou Reed told us to "Take a walk on the wild side" (qtd.
In Roller). In this situation, the quote by Lou Reed was found by the
student as a quote in a book by Roller.
- If your
information is from a full-text article from a database or the Internet,
there may be no page number. If so, use (Author n.pag.) to show that no pagination was available.
Hattiesburg, MS. 5 August 1999.
And Now It Gets Tricky!
I Quotations that
constitute fewer than five lines in your paper should be set off with quotation
] and be incorporated within the normal flow of your text:
Backstreet Boys have created a nice image for their young fans to follow. One
example is the way they look. Their fashionable clothes are cool and
up-to-date. Teenagers relate to their baggy jeans, oversized shirts, and
top-of-the- line shoes. A. J. and Howie have goatee beards and all of them have
short, sometimes colored and spiked, haircuts. According to Jesse Segall,
spokesperson for Seventeen Magazine,
young fans feel they "can relate to these guys because their appearance is
interesting and attractive to them" (23).
material exceeding that length, omit the quotation marks and indent the quoted
language one inch from your left-hand margin. This is also the way to quote
poems or lists:
In fact, many bands never make
it despite their efforts:
begin far before they are fabricated in factories. Before the music can happen,
an idea must be born. Musicians gather and discuss the concept. Then, more
musicians and a producer are consulted and practice begins. It isn't until the
producer has approved recording that it begins. Recording time is very
expensive, so bands should be finessed at this stage as to cut down on cost.
a last note, the lyrics and music The Backstreet Boys create is a definite
reason they are popular.
If quotation marks appear within the text of a quotation that already has the
usual double-quote marks [
] around it (a quote-within-a-quote), set off that inner quotation with
single-quote marks [
] . Such a quote-within-a-quote within an indented quotation is marked with
bands, according to Dalton, are as popular today as they
were in the 1950s, when rock n roll was born. The fans scream, Omygod! and
faint at concerts and record sales explode.