Ms. Gokturk

Guidelines for the Research Paper

You must quote your sources AS WELL AS CITE PARANTHETICALLY. USE CITATIONS !!! Documentation will take two forms in your final paper:

·         In the Works Cited or Bibliography section, where all the sources you've used should be listed alphabetically, and

·         Within the text of your paper, where parentheses should show your readers where you found each piece of information that you have used. These textual citations allow the reader to refer to your Works Cited page(s) for further information.

IN THE BODY of your paper: Parenthetical Documentation

  • MLA recommends parenthetical documentation instead of footnoting. Parenthetical documentation is a brief reference in the paper directly after the sentence or paragraph in which you quote from the book or use its ideas. (Author 27) referring to page 27 of a book listed in the Works Cited takes the place of a footnote. (Author 27) guides the reader of the paper to the full entry for that author in the Works Cited. If the Works Cited lists a work by title, use a shortened form of the title and page number. Examples follow.
  • When the author is mentioned in the sentence only put the page number in the parentheses. Place the period after the parentheses, not within the quotation marks. For example: Carter Hardy believes that the "increased intake of sugar cereals among teachers has significantly raised classroom narcolepsy" (106).
  • When the author is not mentioned by name, put both the author's last name and the page number in the parentheses. Do not put a comma in between them. For example: "Increased intake of sugar cereals among teachers has significantly raised classroom narcolepsy" (Hardy 106).
  • When there is no author, use the first word (or first few words) of the title of the book or article (article title words in quotations). Many people lament the loss of quality television time to the imposition of family interaction ("America" 33).
  • When there are multiple authors: Two authors: "If you think about it, the human species produces more tin foil than plastic wrap" (Clinton and Bush 90). Three authors: (Clinton, Bush, and Reagan 99). More than three authors: (Clinton et al. 104.)
  • Same information in two or more works: List both works in the  parenthetical citation exactly as they would be listed individually, but separate them with a semicolon. Example: Pundits agree that globalization will impact the future of all businesses as national borders are breached and trade barriers are broken down, and both eventually disappear (Friedman 42; Czinkota, Ronkainen and Tarrant 1).
  • When using a quote that was already a quote in your sources: Lou Reed told us to "Take a walk on the wild side" (qtd. In Roller). In this situation, the quote by Lou Reed was found by the student as a quote in a book by Roller.
  • If your information is from a full-text article from a database or the Internet, there may be no page number. If so, use (Author n.pag.) to show that no pagination was available.

Hattiesburg, MS. 5 August 1999. <>.

And Now It Gets Tricky!

I Quotations that constitute fewer than five lines in your paper should be set off with quotation marks [ “ ” ] and be incorporated within the normal flow of your text:

The Backstreet Boys have created a nice image for their young fans to follow. One example is the way they look. Their fashionable clothes are cool and up-to-date. Teenagers relate to their baggy jeans, oversized shirts, and top-of-the- line shoes. A. J. and Howie have goatee beards and all of them have short, sometimes colored and spiked, haircuts. According to Jesse Segall, spokesperson for Seventeen Magazine, young fans feel they "can relate to these guys because their appearance is interesting and attractive to them" (23).  

II For material exceeding that length, omit the quotation marks and indent the quoted language one inch from your left-hand margin. This is also the way to quote poems or lists:

In fact, many bands never make it despite their efforts:

Records begin far before they are fabricated in factories. Before the music can happen, an idea must be born. Musicians gather and discuss the concept. Then, more musicians and a producer are consulted and practice begins. It isn't until the producer has approved recording that it begins. Recording time is very expensive, so bands should be finessed at this stage as to cut down on cost. (Brewster)


On a last note, the lyrics and music The Backstreet Boys create is a definite reason they are popular.

III If quotation marks appear within the text of a quotation that already has the usual double-quote marks [ “ ” ] around it (a quote-within-a-quote), set off that inner quotation with single-quote marks [ ‘ ’ ] . Such a quote-within-a-quote within an indented quotation is marked with double-quote marks:

Rock bands, according to Dalton, “are as popular today as they were in the 1950’s, when rock ‘n’ roll was born. The fans scream, ‘Omygod!’ and faint at concerts and record sales explode.”